Net book value

Net book value (NBV) is a financial indicator that organizations widely utilize. Businesses utilize this accounting technique to lower the recorded cost of a fixed asset systematically.

The amount that an organization records for an asset in its accounting records is known as the net book value of an asset. However, net book value may not always correspond to an asset's actual market value. 

Net book value definition

Net book value is the value of a fixed asset as it appears on the company's balance sheet. The historical market value of a company's assets, or how the accountant documents the assets, is referred to as "net book value" or "book value."

The value of an asset should ideally decline slowly over time, and NBV represents that decline. Towards the end of the useful life of an asset, the NBV should be roughly equal to an asset's salvage value. 

How to calculate the net book value of a company?

Net book value is the difference between the cost of a net asset value and its accumulated depreciation. NBV may not always be the same as the fixed asset's current market value. 

What is the NBV formula?

The NBV can be calculated using the net book value formula for a single asset or a group of assets, such as all assets in a particular class or location. Net book value calculation is performed by subtracting the total accumulated depreciation from the asset's original cost.

Net Book Value = Original Asset Cost – Accumulated Depreciation

The term "original cost" can also refer to the asset's overall acquisition cost. For example, the purchase price, customs duties, sales tax, shipping fees, delivery charge, setup costs, duties, etc.

Depreciation and Amortization


Depreciation is the process of allocating the tangible net asset value over its useful life. It is applied to permanent assets like property and vehicles. Accumulated depreciation over time equals yearly depreciation multiplied by the total number of years.


Amortization is the process of allocating the cost of an intangible asset over its useful life. Intangible assets include licenses, patents, copyrights, goodwill, and tenancy agreements. The sum of all amortization expenses billed against an intangible asset is known as accumulated amortization.

Depreciation and amortization, or expensing an asset over a longer period than when it was acquired, are calculated using a process known as the straight-line method

Is NBV the same as carrying value?

In the balance sheet of the company, netbook value, also known as the carrying value of assets, can be used to determine whether or not a company should buy a particular asset.

The net book value can also calculate how much money a company will make when it sells an asset. Both book value and carrying value pertain to evaluating an asset; the phrases are identical and refer to the same computation.

What is the importance of NBV?

Businesses may utilize net book value (NBV) as a helpful accounting statistic to track the market value of their assets over time. The net book value of assets aids companies in arriving at a more accurate estimation of the entire worth of the firm.

Key Takeaways

The net book value of assets is the value of an asset as it appears on the company's balance sheet. It is the difference between the cost of an asset and its accumulated depreciation. NBV is calculated by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets. As it can be higher or lower than market value, relying solely on NBV for asset valuation  may not be appropriate.

The net book value of assets measures a company's financial position. It can be used to assess whether a company has enough liquid assets to cover its liabilities and whether it has sufficient capital to continue operating without incurring further debt.

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